About 650 BC iron was introduced to England by the Celts and swords were first made. During the Iron Age there were many wars as well as forts and settlements built in England. In 55 BC the written history of England began when Julius Caesar invaded the country. Over the years the early English fought more wars with the Romans. In the 3rd century the rule of the Romans was in decline in England. By the 9th century there were 9 kingdoms in England. Sussex and Kent were some of the first.
During the next centuries the English and French fought many wars though the Middle Ages. In 1348-48 England went through the Black Death and it wiped out about 1/3 of the entire population.
In 1415 Henry V defeated the French at the famous battle of Agincourt. In the 16th century Henry VIII became one of the most powerful kings in all of England. In 1533-1603 England saw a golden age with Elizabeth I on the throne. Through 16432-1651 England saw a civil war and many of the old medieval castles were destroyed in the fighting. Charles II helped rebuild the city of London after the great fire of 1666. George II was on the throne through the Seven Years War of 1756-1753.
In 1782 the British granted the American their independence after the American War of Independence. In 1805 Admiral Nelson defeated Napoleon’s fleet at Trafalgar and Wellington’s defeat of Napoleon saved the UK from the French. Around this time the steam engine created by James Watt transformed the English society and ushered in the Industrial Revolution. The 1800s saw more wars and England also fought in both World Wars.
Climate in England
The parts of England nearest to the Atlantic have mild climate with wind and plenty of rain. The east is drier with less wind and cooler temperatures. On average there are 1340 hours of sunshine every year in England.
Language in England
The main language of England is English.
England uses the British Pound currency.
- London – 8.2 million
- Birmingham – 2.2 million
- Manchester- 1.7 million
- Liverpool 830,000
Things to do in England (Cities and main point of interest)
- The National gallery has many paintings to view through 1250-1900 such as van Gogh’s Sunflowers.
- Westminster Abbey – a rich part of England’s history. All monarchs since William the Conqueror have been crowned here.
- Buckingham Palace – Is home to the current queen of England Elizabeth II.
- Big Ben – Is a famous clock in England and well worth visiting.
England Food and Restaurants
Bread and cheese are very popular in England. Some staple dishes include fish and chips, sausages and mashed potatoes, pork pie, as well as pickled foods. Tea is very popular in England. Beer is also popular here as is the traditional Sunday roast of beef and vegetables. There are many different English dishes such as Beef Wellington, dumplings, hash, and liver with onions among others.
Shopping in England
TopShop and Topman is considered one of the better fashion sores in England that caters to the younger market. Camden market is also very popular with over 10 million visitors each year. Harrods is still a popular department store in England.